Music Therapy for the Elderly

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  1. Ridder, H.M.O. et al (2013)_ Individual music therapy for agitation in dementia: an exploratory randomized controlled trail. Ageing & Mental Health 17 (6)

  2. Gallup (2007) Organizations with a “strengths based” leadership model see their employees 6x more engaged than in “problem-solving focused” organisations and managers using a strengths based model doubled their success rate

  3. “Positive affect measured using ecological momentary assessment and survival in older men and women.” Andrew Steptoe and Jane Wardle, PNAS October 31, 2011. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1110892108

  4. Erkkila J et al (2011) 'Individual Music Therapy for Depression': randomised Controlled Trial'. British Journal of Psychiatry,199:132-9

  • Hsu M. et al (2015) Individual music therapy for managing neuropsychiatric symptoms for people with Dementia and their carets: a randomised controlled feasibility study. BMC Geriatrics
  • (Gallop 2002)Harter & Schmidt (2002) found in a survey of 308798 employees in 51 countries that those in work units above the median on “At work I have the opportunity to do what I do best every day” were 38% higher on productivity measures

Music Therapy for Families

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  1. Department for Education April 2012- Supporting Families in the Early Years.
  2. Allgood (2005)
  3. Oldfield (2008)
  4. Oldfield (2008) p.40
  5. Nicholson et al. (2008) Journal of Health Psychology 13(2), 226-238


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  • Allen, R., Davis, R., & Hill, E. (2013). The effects of autism and alexithymia on physiological and verbal responsiveness to music. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 43(2), 432-444.

  • Brown, S. (1994). Autism and music therapy - is change possible and why music? Journal of British Music Therapy, 8(1), 15-25.

  • De Bruyn, L., Moelants, D., & Leman, M. (2012). An embodied approach to testing musical empathy in participants with an autism spectrum disorder. Music and Medicine, 4(1), 28-36.

  • Dimitriadis, T., & Smeijsters, H. (2011). Autistic spectrum disorder and music therapy: Theory underpinning practice. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 20(2), 108-122.

  • Gadberry, A. L. (2011). A survey of the use of aided augmentative and alternative communication during music therapy sessions with persons with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Music Therapy, 48(1), 74-89.

  • Gattino, G. S., Riesgo, R. d. S., Longo, D., Leite, J. C. L., & Faccini, L. S. (2011). Effects of relational music therapy on communication of children with autism: A randomized controlled study. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 20(2), 142-154.

  • Geretsegger, M., Holck, U., & Gold, C. (2012). Randomised controlled trial of improvisational music therapy's effectiveness for children with autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A): Study protocol. BMC Paediatrics, 12(1), Retrieved from

  • Gold, C., Solli, H., Kruger, V., & Lie, S. (2009). Dose-response relationship in music therapy for people with serious mental disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(3), 193-207.

  • Gold, C., Wigram, T., & Elefant, C. (2006). Music therapy for autistic spectrum disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2006(Issue 2), Art. No.: CD004381. DOI: 004310.001002/14651858.CD14004381.pub1465185

  • Hardy, M. W., & LaGasse, A. B. (2013). Rhythm, movement, and autism: Using rhythmic rehabilitation research as a model for autism. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 28(7), 19.

  • Hillier, A., Greher, G. R., Poto, N., & Dougherty, M. (2012). Positive outcomes following participation in a music intervention for adolescents and young adults on the autism spectrum. Psychology of Music, 40(2), 201-215.

  • Kaplan, R. S., & Steele, A. L. (2005). An analysis of music therapy program goals and outcomes for clients with diagnoses on the autism spectrum. Journal of Music Therapy, 42(1), 2-19.

  • Kern, P., & Aldridge, D. (2006). Using embedded music therapy interventions to support outdoor play of young children with autism in an inclusive community-based child care program. Journal of Music Therapy, 43(4), 270-294.

  • Kim, J., Wigram, T., & Gold, C. (2008). The effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviours in autistic children: A randomized controlled study. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 38(9), 1758-1766.

  • Kostka, M. (1993). A comparison of selected behaviours of a student with autism in special education and regular music classes. Music Therapy Perspectives, 11, 57-60.

  • Porter, S., Holmes, V., McLaughlin, K., Lynn, F., Cardwell, C., Braiden, H.-J., et al. (2012). Music in mind, a randomized controlled trial of music therapy for young people with behavioural and emotional problems: Study protocol. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(10), 2349-2358.

  • Quintin, E.-M., Bhatara, A., Poissant, H., Fombonne, E., & Levitin, D. J. (2011). Emotion perception in music in high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 41(9), 1240-1255.

  • Vaiouli, P., Grimmet, K., & Ruich, L.J. - See more at:

  • “Bill is now singing”: Joint engagement and the emergence of social communication of three young children with autism. A child-centered improvisational music therapy intervention model was implemented to promote engagement in three children with autism in a kindergarten classroom. Using a multiple baseline design, all children showed improvement in joint attention and actions of social engagement.
    Autism 2015; 19(1), 73-83.


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  1. CRAIG Jacqueline Journal article citation: Nursing Times, 110(32/33), 2014, pp.12-15. Publisher: Nursing Times

  2. Sung, H.C., Chang, A.M., & Lee, W.L. (2010). A preferred music listening intervention to reduce anxiety in older adults with dementia in nursing homes. Journal of Clinical Nursing 19(7-8), 1056–1064. doi: 10.1002/gps.2761

  3. Raglio, A., Bellelli, G., Traficante, D., Gianotti, M., Ubezio, M.C., Villani, D., & Trabucchi, M. (2008). Efficacy of music therapy in the treatment of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia. Alzheimer disease and associated disorders, 22(2), 158–162.

  4. Gerdner, L.A. (2005). Use of individualized music by trained staff and family: translating research into practice. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 31(6), 22-30.

  • Gerdner, L.A. (2000). Effects of individualized versus classical ‘relaxation’ music on the frequency of agitation in elderly persons with Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. International Psychogeriatrics, 12(1), 49–65.

  • Gerdner, L.A. (1999). Individualized music intervention protocol. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 25(10), 10-16.

  • Gerdner, L.A. (1997). An individualized music intervention for agitation. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 3(6), 177-184.

  • Gerdner, L.A., & Schoenfelder, D.P. (2010). Evidence-based guideline. Individualized music for elders with dementia. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 36(6), 7-15. doi: 10.3928/00989134-20100504-01.

  • Ragneskog, H., Asplund, K., Kihlgren, M., & Norberg, A. (2001). Individualized music played for agitated patients with dementia: analysis of video-recorded sessions. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 7(3), 146–155.

  • Sung, H.C., & Chang, A.M. (2005). Use of preferred music to decrease agitated behaviours in older people with dementia: a review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 14(9), 1133-1140.

  • Sung, H.C., Chang, A.M., & Abbey, J. (2006). The effects of preferred music on agitation of older people with dementia in Taiwan. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(10), 999-1000.